Seven Techniques for Data Dimensionality Reduction A dimension refers to a measurement of a certain aspect of an object. Dimensionality reduction is the study of methods for reducing the number of dimensions describing the object. Its general objectives are to remove irrelevant and redundant data to

## Dimensionality Reduction an overview ScienceDirect Topics

Dimensionality Reduction A Short Tutorial. Introduction to Pattern Recognition Ricardo Gutierrez-Osuna Wright State University 7 Dimensionality reduction (2) g In general, the optimal mapping y=f(x) will be a non-linear function n However, there is no systematic way to generate non-linear transforms g The selection of a particular subset of transforms is problem dependent n For this reason, feature extraction is commonly limited to, Dimensionality Reduction There are many sources of data that can be viewed as a large matrix. We saw in Chapter 5 how the Web can be represented as a transition matrix. In Chapter 9, the utility matrix was a point of focus. And in Chapter 10 we examined matrices вЂ¦.

Non-Linear Dimensionality Reduction Non-Linear "Principal Componant." Nat Auto-a.soclator a a a a a Output fr 000 Decoding layer fr 000 fr HldcMn layer "bottleneck" 000 Encoding layer a 0\)0 a Input Figure 1: A network capable of non-linear lower dimensional representations of data. with minimum information loss, by multiplying the data by the eigenvectors of the sample Dimensionality Reduction and Feature Extraction PCA, factor analysis, feature selection, feature extraction, and more Feature transformation techniques reduce the dimensionality in the data by transforming data into new features.

Dimensionality reduction is the process of reducing the number of random variables or attributes under consideration. Dimensionality reduction methods include wavelet transforms (Section 3.4.2) and principal components analysis (Section 3.4.3), which transform or project the original data onto a smaller space. Non-Linear Dimensionality Reduction Non-Linear "Principal Componant." Nat Auto-a.soclator a a a a a Output fr 000 Decoding layer fr 000 fr HldcMn layer "bottleneck" 000 Encoding layer a 0\)0 a Input Figure 1: A network capable of non-linear lower dimensional representations of data. with minimum information loss, by multiplying the data by the eigenvectors of the sample

Dimensionality Reduction вЂў Given data points in d dimensions вЂў Convert them to data points in r < d dimensions вЂў With minimal loss of information. Principal Component Analysis Goal: Find r-dim projection that best preserves variance 1. Compute mean vector Вµ and covariance matrix ОЈ Probably the simplest way of reducing dimensionality is by assigning a class (among a total of K classes) to each one of the observationsxn. This can be seen as an extreme case of dimensionality reduction in which we go from M dimensions to 1 (the discrete class label ).

Dimensionality reduction g Implications of the curse of dimensionality n Exponential growth with dimensionality in the number of examples required to accurately estimate a function g In practice, the curse of dimensionality means that n For a given sample вЂ¦ dimensionality representation of the data. Transforming reduced dimensionality projection back into original space gives a reduced dimensionality reconstruction of the original data. Reconstruction will have some error, but it can be small and often is acceptable given вЂ¦

Dimensionality Reduction вЂў Given data points in d dimensions вЂў Convert them to data points in r < d dimensions вЂў With minimal loss of information. Principal Component Analysis Goal: Find r-dim projection that best preserves variance 1. Compute mean vector Вµ and covariance matrix ОЈ Dimensionality reduction has been a subject of much research currently and over the past several decades (some good overviews are available [44, 24, 13, 22]). Especially the pioneering work of Sammon [18] is giving inspi-ration for todayвЂ™s information processing systems. Sammon, in the late 70вЂ™s, combined dimensionality reduction

Dimensionality reduction is the process of reducing the number of random variables or attributes under consideration. Dimensionality reduction methods include wavelet transforms (Section 3.4.2) and principal components analysis (Section 3.4.3), which transform or project the original data onto a smaller space. better than principal components analysis as a tool to reduce the dimensionality of data. D imensionality reduction facilitates the classification, visualization, communi-cation, and storage of high-dimensional data. A simple and widely used method is principal components analysis (PCA), which finds the directions of greatest variance in the

dimensionality reduction technique to index any kind of data [1, 8]. Establishing this generic framework allows us to compare the four dimensionality reduction techniques independent of any implementation decisions of the original authors. In Section 3, we introduce our method. In Why dimensionality reduction? I To discover or to reduce the dimensionality of the data set. I To identify new meaningful underlying variables. I Curse of dimensionality: some problems become intractable as the number of the variables increases.

Dimensionality reduction вЂў feature selection: equivalent to projecting feature space to a lower dimensional subspace perpendicular to removed feature вЂў dimensionality reduction: allow other kinds of projection (e.g. PCA re-represents data using linear combinations of original features) feature selection dimensionality reduction PDF Hyperspectral image data is a progression of spectral bands collected over visible and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Dimensionality reduction offers one approach to

Dimensionality reduction is the process of reducing the number of random variables or attributes under consideration. Dimensionality reduction methods include wavelet transforms (Section 3.4.2) and principal components analysis (Section 3.4.3), which transform or project the original data onto a smaller space. Principal)Component)Analysis) and Dimensionality)Reduction) 1 Matt"Gormley" Lecture14" October"24,2016" " School of Computer Science Readings: BishopCh.12"

Similarity Measures and Dimensionality Reduction Techniques for Time Series Data Mining 75 measure must be established; (ii) to work with the reduced representation, a specific requirement is that it guarantees the lower bounding property. 3. Similarity measures A common data mining task is the estimation of similarity among objects. A similarity Dimensionality Reduction: Principal Components Analysis In data mining one often encounters situations where there are a large number of variables in the database. In such situations it is very likely that subsets of variables are highly correlated with each other. The accuracy and reliability of a classification or prediction model will suffer

Dimensionality Reduction by Learning an Invariant Mapping. PDF Hyperspectral image data is a progression of spectral bands collected over visible and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Dimensionality reduction offers one approach to, spective motivations, assumptions, strengths and weaknesses. The general framework for dimensionality reduction through graph embedding and its extensions is also assessed by examing assumptions behind the constructions of various similarity measures of different algorithms. Based on the insight of this.

### Dimensionality Reduction Principal Components Analysis

Machine Learning Explained Dimensionality Reduction Enh. Dimensionality Reduction: A Comparative Review Laurens van der Maaten Eric Postma Jaap van den Herik TiCC, Tilburg University 1 Introduction Real-world data, such as speech signals, digital photographs, or fMRI scans, usually has a high dimen-, Dimensionality reduction is useful in speech recognition, data compression, visualization and exploratory data analysis. Some of the techniques which can be used for dimensionality reduction are - Factor Analysis(FA) , Principal Component Analysis(PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis(LDA). Factor Analysis can be considered as an extension of.

### (PDF) On Dimensionality Reduction of Data Harika

A survey of dimensionality reduction techniques. Dimensionality reduction g Implications of the curse of dimensionality n Exponential growth with dimensionality in the number of examples required to accurately estimate a function g In practice, the curse of dimensionality means that n For a given sample вЂ¦ Dimensionality Reduction: A Comparative Review Laurens van der Maaten Eric Postma Jaap van den Herik TiCC, Tilburg University 1 Introduction Real-world data, such as speech signals, digital photographs, or fMRI scans, usually has a high dimen-.

• Dimensionality Reduction вЂ” PCA ICA and Manifold learning
• Dimensionality Reduction an overview ScienceDirect Topics
• Similarity Measures and Dimensionality Reduction

• Probably the simplest way of reducing dimensionality is by assigning a class (among a total of K classes) to each one of the observationsxn. This can be seen as an extreme case of dimensionality reduction in which we go from M dimensions to 1 (the discrete class label ). 2017/07/02В В· Reducing Dimensionality from Dimensionality Reduction Techniques. The need to reduce dimensionality is often associated with visualizations (reducing to 2вЂ“3 dimensions so we can plot it) but that is not always the case. My hope in this post to help you understand dimensionality reduction better, so you would feel comfortable with

Dimensionality reduction has been a subject of much research currently and over the past several decades (some good overviews are available [44, 24, 13, 22]). Especially the pioneering work of Sammon [18] is giving inspi-ration for todayвЂ™s information processing systems. Sammon, in the late 70вЂ™s, combined dimensionality reduction We call these techniques a method of dimensionality reduction. Formally, dimensionality reduction involves a mapping from a high-dimensional space to a lower-dimensional one where certain вЂњdistanceвЂќ concept can be preserved. Note that the distance concept between any pair of data points depends on the nature of problem.

A dimension refers to a measurement of a certain aspect of an object. Dimensionality reduction is the study of methods for reducing the number of dimensions describing the object. Its general objectives are to remove irrelevant and redundant data to Dimensionality Reduction General principle: Preserve вЂњusefulвЂќ information in low dimensional data How to define вЂњusefulnessвЂќ? Many An active research direction in machine learning Taxonomy Supervised or Unsupervised Linear or nonlinear

method - called Dimensionality Reduction by Learning an Invariant Mapping (DrLIM) - for learning a globally co-herent non-linear function that maps the data evenly to the output manifold. The learning relies solely on neighbor-hood relationships and does not require any distance mea-surein theinputspace. Themethodcanlearnmappingsthat Principal)Component)Analysis) and Dimensionality)Reduction) 1 Matt"Gormley" Lecture14" October"24,2016" " School of Computer Science Readings: BishopCh.12"

2017/11/03В В· 1. Dimensionality Reduction By Saad Elbeleidy 1 2. Agenda Curse Of Dimensionality Why Reduce Dimensions Types of Dimensionality Reduction Feature Selection Feature Extraction Application Specific Methods 2 3. Curse Of Dimensionality 3 The collection of issues that arise when dealing with high dimensional data. Dimensionality reduction methods for molecular simulations S. Doerr, y ,xI. Ariz-Extreme, M. J. Harvey,zand G. De Fabritiis { yComputational Biophysics Laboratory (GRIB-IMIM), Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB), C/ Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona,

2017/07/02В В· Reducing Dimensionality from Dimensionality Reduction Techniques. The need to reduce dimensionality is often associated with visualizations (reducing to 2вЂ“3 dimensions so we can plot it) but that is not always the case. My hope in this post to help you understand dimensionality reduction better, so you would feel comfortable with Introduction to Pattern Recognition Ricardo Gutierrez-Osuna Wright State University 7 Dimensionality reduction (2) g In general, the optimal mapping y=f(x) will be a non-linear function n However, there is no systematic way to generate non-linear transforms g The selection of a particular subset of transforms is problem dependent n For this reason, feature extraction is commonly limited to

2017/09/19В В· Dimensionality reduction (DR) lowers the dimensionality of a high-dimensional data set by reducing the number of features for each pattern. The importance of DR вЂ¦ Principal)Component)Analysis) and Dimensionality)Reduction) 1 Matt"Gormley" Lecture14" October"24,2016" " School of Computer Science Readings: BishopCh.12"

Dimensionality Reduction General principle: Preserve вЂњusefulвЂќ information in low dimensional data How to define вЂњusefulnessвЂќ? Many An active research direction in machine learning Taxonomy Supervised or Unsupervised Linear or nonlinear 3 Why Dimensionality Reduction? It is so easy and convenient to collect data An experiment Data is not collected only for data mining Data accumulates in an unprecedented speed Data preprocessing is an important part for effective machine learning and data mining Dimensionality reduction is an effective approach to downsizing data

Dimensionality Reduction There are many sources of data that can be viewed as a large matrix. We saw in Chapter 5 how the Web can be represented as a transition matrix. In Chapter 9, the utility matrix was a point of focus. And in Chapter 10 we examined matrices вЂ¦ Probably the simplest way of reducing dimensionality is by assigning a class (among a total of K classes) to each one of the observationsxn. This can be seen as an extreme case of dimensionality reduction in which we go from M dimensions to 1 (the discrete class label ).

Dimensionality reduction with Kernel PCA Independent Component Analysis (ICA) : ICA is a computational method for separating a multivariate signals into additive subcomponents. ICA works under the assumption that the subcomponents comprising the signal sources are non-Gaussian and are statistically independent from each other. In statistics, machine learning, and information theory, dimensionality reduction or dimension reduction is the process of reducing the number of random variables under consideration by obtaining a set of principal variables. Approaches can be divided into feature selection and feature extraction.

Dimensionality reduction has been a subject of much research currently and over the past several decades (some good overviews are available [44, 24, 13, 22]). Especially the pioneering work of Sammon [18] is giving inspi-ration for todayвЂ™s information processing systems. Sammon, in the late 70вЂ™s, combined dimensionality reduction 2017/09/19В В· Dimensionality reduction (DR) lowers the dimensionality of a high-dimensional data set by reducing the number of features for each pattern. The importance of DR вЂ¦

## Principal)Component)Analysis) and Dimensionality)Reduction)

(PDF) A survey of dimensionality reduction techniques. Dimensionality reduction has been a subject of much research currently and over the past several decades (some good overviews are available [44, 24, 13, 22]). Especially the pioneering work of Sammon [18] is giving inspi-ration for todayвЂ™s information processing systems. Sammon, in the late 70вЂ™s, combined dimensionality reduction, Dimensionality reduction is useful in speech recognition, data compression, visualization and exploratory data analysis. Some of the techniques which can be used for dimensionality reduction are - Factor Analysis(FA) , Principal Component Analysis(PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis(LDA). Factor Analysis can be considered as an extension of.

### (PDF) On Dimensionality Reduction of Data Harika

Dimensionality Reduction Principal Components Analysis. Dimensionality Reduction: Principal Components Analysis In data mining one often encounters situations where there are a large number of variables in the database. In such situations it is very likely that subsets of variables are highly correlated with each other. The accuracy and reliability of a classification or prediction model will suffer, Dimensionality Reduction and Feature Extraction PCA, factor analysis, feature selection, feature extraction, and more Feature transformation techniques reduce the dimensionality in the data by transforming data into new features..

This is an easy and relatively safe way to reduce dimensionality at the start of your modeling process. Weaknesses: If your problem does require dimensionality reduction, applying variance thresholds is rarely sufficient. Furthermore, you must manually set or tune a variance threshold, which could be tricky. Dimensionality reduction in everyday life. Before seeing any algorithm, everyday life provides us a great example of dimensionality reduction. Each of these people can be represented as points in a 3 Dimensional space. With a gross approximation, each people is in a 50*50*200 (cm) cube.

better than principal components analysis as a tool to reduce the dimensionality of data. D imensionality reduction facilitates the classification, visualization, communi-cation, and storage of high-dimensional data. A simple and widely used method is principal components analysis (PCA), which finds the directions of greatest variance in the Dimensionality Reduction. Dimensionality reduction is the process of reducing the number of random variables or attributes under consideration (Han, 2012; Meng et al., 2016). Dimensionality reduction methods include wavelet transforms and Principal Components Analysis (PCA), which transform or project the original data onto a smaller space.

Dimensionality reduction can also be seen as a feature extraction or coding procedure, or in general as a representation in a di erent coordinate system. This is the basis for the de nition given in section 4.2. 4.1.1 Classes of dimensionality reduction problems We attempt here a rough classi cation of the dimensionality reduction problems: Principal)Component)Analysis) and Dimensionality)Reduction) 1 Matt"Gormley" Lecture14" October"24,2016" " School of Computer Science Readings: BishopCh.12"

Dimensionality Reduction. Dimensionality reduction is the process of reducing the number of random variables or attributes under consideration (Han, 2012; Meng et al., 2016). Dimensionality reduction methods include wavelet transforms and Principal Components Analysis (PCA), which transform or project the original data onto a smaller space. Dimensionality reduction has been a subject of much research currently and over the past several decades (some good overviews are available [44, 24, 13, 22]). Especially the pioneering work of Sammon [18] is giving inspi-ration for todayвЂ™s information processing systems. Sammon, in the late 70вЂ™s, combined dimensionality reduction

We call these techniques a method of dimensionality reduction. Formally, dimensionality reduction involves a mapping from a high-dimensional space to a lower-dimensional one where certain вЂњdistanceвЂќ concept can be preserved. Note that the distance concept between any pair of data points depends on the nature of problem. Dimensionality reduction methods for molecular simulations S. Doerr, y ,xI. Ariz-Extreme, M. J. Harvey,zand G. De Fabritiis { yComputational Biophysics Laboratory (GRIB-IMIM), Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB), C/ Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona,

another method for dimensionality reduction of manifolds has been described in terms of the spectral decomposition of graph Laplacians [2]. Although all three algorithms, Isomap, graph Laplacian eigenmaps, and LLE have quite different motivations and derivations, they all can perform dimensionality reduction on nonlinear manifolds as shown in Dimensionality Reduction. Dimensionality reduction is the process of reducing the number of random variables or attributes under consideration (Han, 2012; Meng et al., 2016). Dimensionality reduction methods include wavelet transforms and Principal Components Analysis (PCA), which transform or project the original data onto a smaller space.

3 Why Dimensionality Reduction? It is so easy and convenient to collect data An experiment Data is not collected only for data mining Data accumulates in an unprecedented speed Data preprocessing is an important part for effective machine learning and data mining Dimensionality reduction is an effective approach to downsizing data spective motivations, assumptions, strengths and weaknesses. The general framework for dimensionality reduction through graph embedding and its extensions is also assessed by examing assumptions behind the constructions of various similarity measures of different algorithms. Based on the insight of this

2017/11/03В В· 1. Dimensionality Reduction By Saad Elbeleidy 1 2. Agenda Curse Of Dimensionality Why Reduce Dimensions Types of Dimensionality Reduction Feature Selection Feature Extraction Application Specific Methods 2 3. Curse Of Dimensionality 3 The collection of issues that arise when dealing with high dimensional data. The aim of dimensionality reduction is to produce a compact low-dimensional encoding of a given high-dimensional data set [36]. The dimensionality can be reduced in two ways [37]. The first is by

Dimensionality reduction with Kernel PCA Independent Component Analysis (ICA) : ICA is a computational method for separating a multivariate signals into additive subcomponents. ICA works under the assumption that the subcomponents comprising the signal sources are non-Gaussian and are statistically independent from each other. Dimensionality Reduction вЂў Given data points in d dimensions вЂў Convert them to data points in r < d dimensions вЂў With minimal loss of information. Principal Component Analysis Goal: Find r-dim projection that best preserves variance 1. Compute mean vector Вµ and covariance matrix ОЈ

Dimensionality reduction can also be seen as a feature extraction or coding procedure, or in general as a representation in a di erent coordinate system. This is the basis for the de nition given in section 4.2. 4.1.1 Classes of dimensionality reduction problems We attempt here a rough classi cation of the dimensionality reduction problems: Dimensionality reduction is the transformation of high-dimensional data into a meaningful representation of reduced dimensionality. Ideally, the reduced representation has a dimensionality that corresponds to the intrinsic dimension-ality of the data. The intrinsic dimensionality of data is the minimum number of parameters needed to account for

### Reducing Dimensionality from Dimensionality Reduction

Dimensionality Reduction вЂ” PCA ICA and Manifold learning. This is an easy and relatively safe way to reduce dimensionality at the start of your modeling process. Weaknesses: If your problem does require dimensionality reduction, applying variance thresholds is rarely sufficient. Furthermore, you must manually set or tune a variance threshold, which could be tricky., Dimensionality reduction вЂў feature selection: equivalent to projecting feature space to a lower dimensional subspace perpendicular to removed feature вЂў dimensionality reduction: allow other kinds of projection (e.g. PCA re-represents data using linear combinations of original features) feature selection dimensionality reduction.

### Dimensionality Reduction SlideShare

Dimensionality Reduction Algorithms Strengths and Weaknesses. Similarity Measures and Dimensionality Reduction Techniques for Time Series Data Mining 75 measure must be established; (ii) to work with the reduced representation, a specific requirement is that it guarantees the lower bounding property. 3. Similarity measures A common data mining task is the estimation of similarity among objects. A similarity 2017/09/19В В· Dimensionality reduction (DR) lowers the dimensionality of a high-dimensional data set by reducing the number of features for each pattern. The importance of DR вЂ¦.

• REPORTS cs.toronto.edu
• Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction John A. Lee Springer

• Dimensionality reduction вЂў feature selection: equivalent to projecting feature space to a lower dimensional subspace perpendicular to removed feature вЂў dimensionality reduction: allow other kinds of projection (e.g. PCA re-represents data using linear combinations of original features) feature selection dimensionality reduction This is an easy and relatively safe way to reduce dimensionality at the start of your modeling process. Weaknesses: If your problem does require dimensionality reduction, applying variance thresholds is rarely sufficient. Furthermore, you must manually set or tune a variance threshold, which could be tricky.

Principal)Component)Analysis) and Dimensionality)Reduction) 1 Matt"Gormley" Lecture14" October"24,2016" " School of Computer Science Readings: BishopCh.12" Dimensionality reduction methods for molecular simulations S. Doerr, y ,xI. Ariz-Extreme, M. J. Harvey,zand G. De Fabritiis { yComputational Biophysics Laboratory (GRIB-IMIM), Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB), C/ Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona,

Similarity Measures and Dimensionality Reduction Techniques for Time Series Data Mining 75 measure must be established; (ii) to work with the reduced representation, a specific requirement is that it guarantees the lower bounding property. 3. Similarity measures A common data mining task is the estimation of similarity among objects. A similarity In statistics, machine learning, and information theory, dimensionality reduction or dimension reduction is the process of reducing the number of random variables under consideration by obtaining a set of principal variables. Approaches can be divided into feature selection and feature extraction.

Dimensionality reduction is useful in speech recognition, data compression, visualization and exploratory data analysis. Some of the techniques which can be used for dimensionality reduction are - Factor Analysis(FA) , Principal Component Analysis(PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis(LDA). Factor Analysis can be considered as an extension of PDF Hyperspectral image data is a progression of spectral bands collected over visible and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Dimensionality reduction offers one approach to

Dimensionality Reduction вЂў Given data points in d dimensions вЂў Convert them to data points in r < d dimensions вЂў With minimal loss of information. Principal Component Analysis Goal: Find r-dim projection that best preserves variance 1. Compute mean vector Вµ and covariance matrix ОЈ Dimensionality reduction methods for molecular simulations S. Doerr, y ,xI. Ariz-Extreme, M. J. Harvey,zand G. De Fabritiis { yComputational Biophysics Laboratory (GRIB-IMIM), Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB), C/ Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona,

Dimensionality reduction can also be seen as a feature extraction or coding procedure, or in general as a representation in a di erent coordinate system. This is the basis for the de nition given in section 4.2. 4.1.1 Classes of dimensionality reduction problems We attempt here a rough classi cation of the dimensionality reduction problems: Similarity Measures and Dimensionality Reduction Techniques for Time Series Data Mining 75 measure must be established; (ii) to work with the reduced representation, a specific requirement is that it guarantees the lower bounding property. 3. Similarity measures A common data mining task is the estimation of similarity among objects. A similarity

PDF Hyperspectral image data is a progression of spectral bands collected over visible and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Dimensionality reduction offers one approach to dimensionality representation of the data. Transforming reduced dimensionality projection back into original space gives a reduced dimensionality reconstruction of the original data. Reconstruction will have some error, but it can be small and often is acceptable given вЂ¦

This is an easy and relatively safe way to reduce dimensionality at the start of your modeling process. Weaknesses: If your problem does require dimensionality reduction, applying variance thresholds is rarely sufficient. Furthermore, you must manually set or tune a variance threshold, which could be tricky. This is an easy and relatively safe way to reduce dimensionality at the start of your modeling process. Weaknesses: If your problem does require dimensionality reduction, applying variance thresholds is rarely sufficient. Furthermore, you must manually set or tune a variance threshold, which could be tricky.

Dimensionality reduction has been a subject of much research currently and over the past several decades (some good overviews are available [44, 24, 13, 22]). Especially the pioneering work of Sammon [18] is giving inspi-ration for todayвЂ™s information processing systems. Sammon, in the late 70вЂ™s, combined dimensionality reduction 2017/09/19В В· Dimensionality reduction (DR) lowers the dimensionality of a high-dimensional data set by reducing the number of features for each pattern. The importance of DR вЂ¦

dimensionality reduction technique to index any kind of data [1, 8]. Establishing this generic framework allows us to compare the four dimensionality reduction techniques independent of any implementation decisions of the original authors. In Section 3, we introduce our method. In The recent explosion of data set size, in number of records and attributes, has triggered the development of a number of big data platforms as well as parallel data analytics algorithms. At the same time though, it has pushed for usage of data dimensionality reduction procedures. Indeed, more is not always better. Large amounts of data might sometimes produce worse performances in data

The recent explosion of data set size, in number of records and attributes, has triggered the development of a number of big data platforms as well as parallel data analytics algorithms. At the same time though, it has pushed for usage of data dimensionality reduction procedures. Indeed, more is not The aim of dimensionality reduction is to produce a compact low-dimensional encoding of a given high-dimensional data set [36]. The dimensionality can be reduced in two ways [37]. The first is by