Causes of ethnic conflict in africa pdf Palmerston North

causes of ethnic conflict in africa pdf

Competing Theories of Ethnic Conflict 02-02-2019В В· The root causes of ethnic conflict in Africa are poorly understood. Most of the available sources address ethnic conflict in Africa from the point of view of either ethnic diversity or climate change and competition for natural resources to the exclusion of mass grievances to the state. However, the major historical problems include the non

Ethnic conflict Wikipedia

(PDF) Conflicts in Africa Meaning Causes Impact and Solution. Causes of Conflicts in Africa Conflicts in Africa may be said to have been caused by a multiplicity of factors such as: arbitrary borders created by the colonial powers, heterogeneous ethnic composition of African states, inept political leadership, corruption, negative effect of external debt burden and poverty., 04-12-2007В В· Ethnic conflict: Causes, consequences, responses Robin Mann School of Social Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, UK Correspondence sosa02@bangor.ac.uk Pages 181-182.

28-01-2014 · Article: Violent Conflicts and Civil Strife in West Africa: Causes, Challenges and Prospects The advent of intra-state conflicts or ‘new wars’ in West Africa has brought many of its economies to the brink of collapse, creating humanitarian casualties and concerns. For decades, countries such as Liberia, Sierra Leone, Côte d’Ivoire and Guinea- Bissau were crippled by conflicts and civil strife in which … 12-05-2010 · It also points out that in Africa, failed institutions are also a cause. It adds that where there is ethnic diversity, there is actually less chance for civil wars, as long as there is not just a small number of very large ethnic groups, or ethnic polarization. These And Other Causes Reinforce Each Other

Third World Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 1155–1166, 2004 FEATURE REVIEW Against the concept of ethnic conflict BRUCE GILLEY ABSTRACT Despite a boom in studies of ethnic conflict, the empirical and conceptual justification for this field remains weak. Figure 1 – Causes of Ethnic Conflict: Conceptual Framework . Uncertainty, Each ethnic conflict has its own unique characteristics and, in different contexts, some of these elements will be more prominent than the others, but all of them are the “common denominators” necessary for ethnic conflict to occur. The primordialist approach helps

04-12-2007В В· Ethnic conflict: Causes, consequences, responses Robin Mann School of Social Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, UK Correspondence sosa02@bangor.ac.uk Pages 181-182 04-12-2007В В· Ethnic conflict: Causes, consequences, responses Robin Mann School of Social Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, UK Correspondence sosa02@bangor.ac.uk Pages 181-182

create conflict scenarios through which ethnic resources are mobilized for inter-group or inter-ethnic conflicts in the Northern Region of Ghana. The result is that the region has been enmeshed in inter-ethnic conflicts over the past three decades marked by phenomenal increases in mayhem and the destruction of lives and property. The causes of Third World Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 1155–1166, 2004 FEATURE REVIEW Against the concept of ethnic conflict BRUCE GILLEY ABSTRACT Despite a boom in studies of ethnic conflict, the empirical and conceptual justification for this field remains weak.

Ethnic conflict, a form of conflict in which the objectives of at least one party are defined in ethnic terms, and the conflict, its antecedents, and possible solutions are perceived along ethnic lines.The conflict is usually not about ethnic differences themselves but over political, economic, social, cultural, or territorial matters. This book focuses on the problem of ethnic conflict in Africa and seeks to explain its root causes. The main thesis of the book is that ethnic political mobilization is essentially a function of deeply-felt grievances on the part of the groups so mobilized. CГ©line A. Jacquemin is an Associate

The dominant discourse on the causes of conflict in Africa puts emphasis on lack of economic growth and poor governance. It accordingly advocates the opening up of Africa's economy to foreign capital as a means of improving growth and thus eliminating poverty as a cause of conflict, and a more democratic system of 5. Causes of Violent Conflict in Africa There are many causes of violent conflicts in Africa, and these include, ethnic marginalization, religious differences, access to resources, poor governance and leadership, self-determination and territory. Singer (cited in Potro, 2002, p. 6) identifies “territory, ideology, dynastic legitimacy, religion,

04-12-2007 · Ethnic conflict: Causes, consequences, responses Robin Mann School of Social Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, UK Correspondence sosa02@bangor.ac.uk Pages 181-182 Figure 1 – Causes of Ethnic Conflict: Conceptual Framework . Uncertainty, Each ethnic conflict has its own unique characteristics and, in different contexts, some of these elements will be more prominent than the others, but all of them are the “common denominators” necessary for ethnic conflict to occur. The primordialist approach helps

The dominant discourse on the causes of conflict in Africa puts emphasis on lack of economic growth and poor governance. It accordingly advocates the opening up of Africa's economy to foreign capital as a means of improving growth and thus eliminating poverty as a cause of conflict, and a more democratic system of reports. With regard to conflict, the APRM has stated as one of its objectives the prevention and reduction of inter- and intra-state conflict. Based on a qualitative analysis of conflict in Africa, this paper has identified broad types of conflict in order to understand better the conflict dynamics, causes and drivers on the continent. The

Since ethnic conflicts abound, and are escalating in contemporary Africa, many have simply traced the root cause of armed conflicts to the multi-ethnic composition of African states. The common notion is that the multi-ethnic African state is inherently conflictual and therefore conflict is an intrinsic phenomenon of the multi-ethnic state. Though cultural and ethnic diversity per say are not causes for conflict, but one of the major problem areas is that the Northeast is territorially organized in such a manner that ethnic and cultural specificities were ignored during the process of delineation of state boundaries in the 1950s, giving rise to discontentment and assertion of one

Rural Development CAUSES OF CONFLICTS IN AFRICA. Competing theories of Ethnic conflict in the Caucasus Abstract: This study presents a conceptual framework for understanding the conflict in one of the most dangerous regions of the world – the Caucasus. By proposing a typology of armed conflict, the study seeks to achieve analytical clarity and contribute to conflict analysis. My approach, The Causes of Ethnic Conflicts Mariana Tepfenhart mtepfenh@monmouth.edu . Ethnic conflicts are not new phenomena. Such conflicts have existed all over the world for centuries, but in the last 20 years, after the fall of Communism, they are in the focus of public attention due to the war in Rwanda, the events in Eastern Europe, and the.

Conflict in Northeast India Issues Causes and Concern Heinrich

causes of ethnic conflict in africa pdf

Competing Theories of Ethnic Conflict. 09-02-2002 · Root causes of violent conflict in developing countries. Frances Stewart, director Author and many people have multiple identities. 2 Many of the ethnic identities in Africa that today seem to be so strong were “invented” by the colonial powers for administrative purposes and have only weak origins in precolonial Africa. 3 Their boundaries are generally fluid, and they have rightly been described as …, civilians,ethnic and religiousmobilisationand the state as epicentreof violence.The paperconcludes with a brieflook aheadto 2015. Keywords: Africa, conflict, CAR, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Boko Haram, al-Shabaab Introduction Violent conflict escalated in Africa in 2014, with five countries in sub-Saharan Africa – the.

The Root Causes of Conflicts in the Horn of Africa Science

causes of ethnic conflict in africa pdf

Economic and Political Causes of Conflict An Overview and Some. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 1155–1166, 2004 FEATURE REVIEW Against the concept of ethnic conflict BRUCE GILLEY ABSTRACT Despite a boom in studies of ethnic conflict, the empirical and conceptual justification for this field remains weak. https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Darfur_conflict An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups.While the source of the conflict may be political, social, economic or religious, the individuals in conflict must expressly fight for their ethnic group's position within society.This final criterion differentiates ethnic conflict from other forms of struggle. Academic explanations of ethnic conflict generally fall into one of three schools of ….

causes of ethnic conflict in africa pdf

  • (PDF) Conflicts in Africa Meaning Causes Impact and Solution
  • Ethnic conflict Britannica
  • CAUSES OF ETHNIC CONFLICT A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

  • This post is for the following search queries: causes of conflict in Nigeria, causes of ethnic conflict in Nigeria PDF, solution to ethnicity problem in nigeria, solutions to ethnic problems in nigeria pdf, problem of ethnicity in nigeria pdf, causes of religious crisis in nigeria, what are the consequences of ethnicity 5. Causes of Violent Conflict in Africa There are many causes of violent conflicts in Africa, and these include, ethnic marginalization, religious differences, access to resources, poor governance and leadership, self-determination and territory. Singer (cited in Potro, 2002, p. 6) identifies “territory, ideology, dynastic legitimacy, religion,

    The Causes of Ethnic Conflicts Mariana Tepfenhart mtepfenh@monmouth.edu . Ethnic conflicts are not new phenomena. Such conflicts have existed all over the world for centuries, but in the last 20 years, after the fall of Communism, they are in the focus of public attention due to the war in Rwanda, the events in Eastern Europe, and the 28-01-2014 · Article: Violent Conflicts and Civil Strife in West Africa: Causes, Challenges and Prospects The advent of intra-state conflicts or ‘new wars’ in West Africa has brought many of its economies to the brink of collapse, creating humanitarian casualties and concerns. For decades, countries such as Liberia, Sierra Leone, Côte d’Ivoire and Guinea- Bissau were crippled by conflicts and civil strife in which …

    02-03-2015 · The Horn of Africa (HOA) has been mentioned as one of the most disputed regions of the globe. It has been experienced with a number of armed conflicts, ethno-linguistic disputes, religious radicalism where in it catches the attention of most developed nations including US for their strategic interest over the region. Accordingly, this paper attempted to identify and critically analyze the due … 04-12-2007 · Ethnic conflict: Causes, consequences, responses Robin Mann School of Social Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, UK Correspondence sosa02@bangor.ac.uk Pages 181-182

    Competing theories of Ethnic conflict in the Caucasus Abstract: This study presents a conceptual framework for understanding the conflict in one of the most dangerous regions of the world – the Caucasus. By proposing a typology of armed conflict, the study seeks to achieve analytical clarity and contribute to conflict analysis. My approach The dominant discourse on the causes of conflict in Africa puts emphasis on lack of economic growth and poor governance. It accordingly advocates the opening up of Africa's economy to foreign capital as a means of improving growth and thus eliminating poverty as a cause of conflict, and a more democratic system of

    An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups.While the source of the conflict may be political, social, economic or religious, the individuals in conflict must expressly fight for their ethnic group's position within society.This final criterion differentiates ethnic conflict from other forms of struggle. Academic explanations of ethnic conflict generally fall into one of three schools of … An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups.While the source of the conflict may be political, social, economic or religious, the individuals in conflict must expressly fight for their ethnic group's position within society.This final criterion differentiates ethnic conflict from other forms of struggle. Academic explanations of ethnic conflict generally fall into one of three schools of …

    reports. With regard to conflict, the APRM has stated as one of its objectives the prevention and reduction of inter- and intra-state conflict. Based on a qualitative analysis of conflict in Africa, this paper has identified broad types of conflict in order to understand better the conflict dynamics, causes and drivers on the continent. The An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups.While the source of the conflict may be political, social, economic or religious, the individuals in conflict must expressly fight for their ethnic group's position within society.This final criterion differentiates ethnic conflict from other forms of struggle. Academic explanations of ethnic conflict generally fall into one of three schools of …

    Though cultural and ethnic diversity per say are not causes for conflict, but one of the major problem areas is that the Northeast is territorially organized in such a manner that ethnic and cultural specificities were ignored during the process of delineation of state boundaries in the 1950s, giving rise to discontentment and assertion of one Though cultural and ethnic diversity per say are not causes for conflict, but one of the major problem areas is that the Northeast is territorially organized in such a manner that ethnic and cultural specificities were ignored during the process of delineation of state boundaries in the 1950s, giving rise to discontentment and assertion of one

    Competing Theories of Ethnic Conflict

    causes of ethnic conflict in africa pdf

    How Useful are the Main Existing Theories of Ethnic Conflict?. Causes of conflict in Kenya. Since we have looked at some of the causes of conflict in Africa, let us come back home and look at some of the sources of conflict in our country. 1. Competition for scarce natural resources. One of the leading causes of conflict in Kenya is when individuals clash over limited resources such as land and water. For, 04-12-2007В В· Ethnic conflict: Causes, consequences, responses Robin Mann School of Social Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, UK Correspondence sosa02@bangor.ac.uk Pages 181-182.

    (PDF) Causes of Civil War in Africa Gavin Raymond Academia.edu

    How Useful are the Main Existing Theories of Ethnic Conflict?. The causes of ethnic conflict are densely debated by scholars across disciplines but these arguments can be categorized into three major theories of ethnic conflict namely primordialism, instrumentalism and constructivism. Each of these theories have specific assumptions regarding the origin of ethnic identities, and following from this they reflect different causes of ethnic conflict. Ethnic conflict is defined in this …, Conflict resolution in Africa history of ethnic conflicts the Darfur conflict Gumuz and Oromo conflict Orma-Pokomo conflict armed violence in Africa center-periphery relations in Africa chronic marginalization in Africa Tana Delta African political elites African resource management democratic governance in Africa.

    reports. With regard to conflict, the APRM has stated as one of its objectives the prevention and reduction of inter- and intra-state conflict. Based on a qualitative analysis of conflict in Africa, this paper has identified broad types of conflict in order to understand better the conflict dynamics, causes and drivers on the continent. The 10-06-2016 · Wanjala S. Nasong’o’s preface sets the stage for The Roots of Ethnic Conflict in Africa: From Grievance to Violence, an edited volume, which has three illustrations, nine chapters, a rich bibliography, and an index.The preface provides a general overview of the ideas on which the book rests: the prevalent propensity for ethnic political mobilization in Africa [and] why such mobilization leads to …

    10-06-2016 · Wanjala S. Nasong’o’s preface sets the stage for The Roots of Ethnic Conflict in Africa: From Grievance to Violence, an edited volume, which has three illustrations, nine chapters, a rich bibliography, and an index.The preface provides a general overview of the ideas on which the book rests: the prevalent propensity for ethnic political mobilization in Africa [and] why such mobilization leads to … Economic and Political Causes of Conflict: An Overview and Some Policy Implications Abstract Civil war continues to be a major feature of contemporary developing countries, and a source of underdevelopment. Although much contemporary conflict seems to be about political, ethnic, or

    Ethnic Conflict CAUSES OF ETHNIC CONFLICT IN NIGERIA. TRIBALISM; Tribalism: Nigerians tend to segregate and discriminate against people that are not from the same tribe. This causes jealousy, hatred and can further cause conflict between two or more ethnic groups. THE CAUSES AND DYNAMICS OF CONFLICT IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA Sub-Saharan Africa is a vast land rich in natural resources with great potential for investment and opportunity. However, the two modern trends of democracy and economic prosperity elude this region due in large part to persistent conflict and complex socio-political dynamics. The causes

    12-05-2010В В· It also points out that in Africa, failed institutions are also a cause. It adds that where there is ethnic diversity, there is actually less chance for civil wars, as long as there is not just a small number of very large ethnic groups, or ethnic polarization. These And Other Causes Reinforce Each Other 12-05-2010В В· It also points out that in Africa, failed institutions are also a cause. It adds that where there is ethnic diversity, there is actually less chance for civil wars, as long as there is not just a small number of very large ethnic groups, or ethnic polarization. These And Other Causes Reinforce Each Other

    Relying on the comparative study of Nigeria and South Africa, it is the contention in this paper that ethnic conflict which has been at the heart of African countries development problem is a Since ethnic conflicts abound, and are escalating in contemporary Africa, many have simply traced the root cause of armed conflicts to the multi-ethnic composition of African states. The common notion is that the multi-ethnic African state is inherently conflictual and therefore conflict is an intrinsic phenomenon of the multi-ethnic state.

    Competing theories of Ethnic conflict in the Caucasus Abstract: This study presents a conceptual framework for understanding the conflict in one of the most dangerous regions of the world – the Caucasus. By proposing a typology of armed conflict, the study seeks to achieve analytical clarity and contribute to conflict analysis. My approach PDF This article argues that ethnic conflicts in Africa often have structural sources. They arise from anomalous economic, political and social structures prevalent in many African societies.

    Ethnic Conflict CAUSES OF ETHNIC CONFLICT IN NIGERIA. TRIBALISM; Tribalism: Nigerians tend to segregate and discriminate against people that are not from the same tribe. This causes jealousy, hatred and can further cause conflict between two or more ethnic groups. This book focuses on the problem of ethnic conflict in Africa and seeks to explain its root causes. The main thesis of the book is that ethnic political mobilization is essentially a function of deeply-felt grievances on the part of the groups so mobilized. CГ©line A. Jacquemin is an Associate

    Causes of Conflicts in Africa Conflicts in Africa may be said to have been caused by a multiplicity of factors such as: arbitrary borders created by the colonial powers, heterogeneous ethnic composition of African states, inept political leadership, corruption, negative effect of external debt burden and poverty. 09-02-2002 · Root causes of violent conflict in developing countries. Frances Stewart, director Author and many people have multiple identities. 2 Many of the ethnic identities in Africa that today seem to be so strong were “invented” by the colonial powers for administrative purposes and have only weak origins in precolonial Africa. 3 Their boundaries are generally fluid, and they have rightly been described as …

    Economic and Political Causes of Civil Wars in Africa Some

    causes of ethnic conflict in africa pdf

    Economic and Political Causes of Civil Wars in Africa Some. Types and Causes of Conflict . Sheriff F. Folarin, PhD . Senior Lecturer and Head of Department . Political Science and International Relations . Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria +2348030692614 . Sheriff.folarin@covenantuniversity.edu.ng . 2 Introduction . Conflict is as old as mankind. It is a salient feature of human the society. Men must fight even if they do not posses arms or when tools of …, Ethnic Conflict CAUSES OF ETHNIC CONFLICT IN NIGERIA. TRIBALISM; Tribalism: Nigerians tend to segregate and discriminate against people that are not from the same tribe. This causes jealousy, hatred and can further cause conflict between two or more ethnic groups..

    Against the concept of ethnic conflict sites.hks.harvard.edu. PDF This article argues that ethnic conflicts in Africa often have structural sources. They arise from anomalous economic, political and social structures prevalent in many African societies., Though cultural and ethnic diversity per say are not causes for conflict, but one of the major problem areas is that the Northeast is territorially organized in such a manner that ethnic and cultural specificities were ignored during the process of delineation of state boundaries in the 1950s, giving rise to discontentment and assertion of one.

    (PDF) Conflicts in Africa Meaning Causes Impact and Solution

    causes of ethnic conflict in africa pdf

    The Origins of Ethnic Conflict in Africa SpringerLink. 10-06-2016 · Wanjala S. Nasong’o’s preface sets the stage for The Roots of Ethnic Conflict in Africa: From Grievance to Violence, an edited volume, which has three illustrations, nine chapters, a rich bibliography, and an index.The preface provides a general overview of the ideas on which the book rests: the prevalent propensity for ethnic political mobilization in Africa [and] why such mobilization leads to … https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Darfur_conflict Ethnic Conflict CAUSES OF ETHNIC CONFLICT IN NIGERIA. TRIBALISM; Tribalism: Nigerians tend to segregate and discriminate against people that are not from the same tribe. This causes jealousy, hatred and can further cause conflict between two or more ethnic groups..

    causes of ethnic conflict in africa pdf


    The Legacy of Historical Conflict Evidence from Africa There is a great deal of interest in the causes and consequences of conflict in Africa, one of the poorest areas of the world where only modest economic progress has been made. This paper asks whether post-colonial conflict is, at least in part, a legacy of historical conflict by examining the empirical relationship between conflict in Africa since … Third World Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 1155–1166, 2004 FEATURE REVIEW Against the concept of ethnic conflict BRUCE GILLEY ABSTRACT Despite a boom in studies of ethnic conflict, the empirical and conceptual justification for this field remains weak.

    This post is for the following search queries: causes of conflict in Nigeria, causes of ethnic conflict in Nigeria PDF, solution to ethnicity problem in nigeria, solutions to ethnic problems in nigeria pdf, problem of ethnicity in nigeria pdf, causes of religious crisis in nigeria, what are the consequences of ethnicity 02-02-2019В В· The root causes of ethnic conflict in Africa are poorly understood. Most of the available sources address ethnic conflict in Africa from the point of view of either ethnic diversity or climate change and competition for natural resources to the exclusion of mass grievances to the state. However, the major historical problems include the non

    The causes of ethnic conflict are densely debated by scholars across disciplines but these arguments can be categorized into three major theories of ethnic conflict namely primordialism, instrumentalism and constructivism. Each of these theories have specific assumptions regarding the origin of ethnic identities, and following from this they reflect different causes of ethnic conflict. Ethnic conflict is defined in this … An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups.While the source of the conflict may be political, social, economic or religious, the individuals in conflict must expressly fight for their ethnic group's position within society.This final criterion differentiates ethnic conflict from other forms of struggle. Academic explanations of ethnic conflict generally fall into one of three schools of …

    Ethnic Conflict CAUSES OF ETHNIC CONFLICT IN NIGERIA. TRIBALISM; Tribalism: Nigerians tend to segregate and discriminate against people that are not from the same tribe. This causes jealousy, hatred and can further cause conflict between two or more ethnic groups. 02-02-2019В В· The root causes of ethnic conflict in Africa are poorly understood. Most of the available sources address ethnic conflict in Africa from the point of view of either ethnic diversity or climate change and competition for natural resources to the exclusion of mass grievances to the state. However, the major historical problems include the non

    28-01-2014 · Article: Violent Conflicts and Civil Strife in West Africa: Causes, Challenges and Prospects The advent of intra-state conflicts or ‘new wars’ in West Africa has brought many of its economies to the brink of collapse, creating humanitarian casualties and concerns. For decades, countries such as Liberia, Sierra Leone, Côte d’Ivoire and Guinea- Bissau were crippled by conflicts and civil strife in which … Relying on the comparative study of Nigeria and South Africa, it is the contention in this paper that ethnic conflict which has been at the heart of African countries development problem is a

    02-02-2019 · The root causes of ethnic conflict in Africa are poorly understood. Most of the available sources address ethnic conflict in Africa from the point of view of either ethnic diversity or climate change and competition for natural resources to the exclusion of mass grievances to the state. However, the major historical problems include the non Why Are There So Many Civil Wars in Africa? Understanding and Preventing Violent Conflict and economic development failures --not tribalism or ethnic hatred-- are the root causes of Africa's problems. The implication is that political and economic development can effectively reduce or eradicate political violence in Africa. In this paper, we focus explicitly on such a comparison between Africa and other …

    This is a list of conflicts in Africa arranged by country, both on the continent and associated islands, including wars between African nations, civil wars, and wars involving non-African nations that took place within Africa. It encompasses colonial wars, wars of independence, secessionist and separatist conflicts, major episodes of national violence (riots, massacres, etc.), and global conflicts in which Africa was a … 10-06-2016 · Wanjala S. Nasong’o’s preface sets the stage for The Roots of Ethnic Conflict in Africa: From Grievance to Violence, an edited volume, which has three illustrations, nine chapters, a rich bibliography, and an index.The preface provides a general overview of the ideas on which the book rests: the prevalent propensity for ethnic political mobilization in Africa [and] why such mobilization leads to …

    04-12-2007В В· Ethnic conflict: Causes, consequences, responses Robin Mann School of Social Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, UK Correspondence sosa02@bangor.ac.uk Pages 181-182 reports. With regard to conflict, the APRM has stated as one of its objectives the prevention and reduction of inter- and intra-state conflict. Based on a qualitative analysis of conflict in Africa, this paper has identified broad types of conflict in order to understand better the conflict dynamics, causes and drivers on the continent. The

    28-01-2014 · Article: Violent Conflicts and Civil Strife in West Africa: Causes, Challenges and Prospects The advent of intra-state conflicts or ‘new wars’ in West Africa has brought many of its economies to the brink of collapse, creating humanitarian casualties and concerns. For decades, countries such as Liberia, Sierra Leone, Côte d’Ivoire and Guinea- Bissau were crippled by conflicts and civil strife in which … This post is for the following search queries: causes of conflict in Nigeria, causes of ethnic conflict in Nigeria PDF, solution to ethnicity problem in nigeria, solutions to ethnic problems in nigeria pdf, problem of ethnicity in nigeria pdf, causes of religious crisis in nigeria, what are the consequences of ethnicity